(2004). It typically involves the dissolution of silicate minerals and subsequent precipitation of stable carbonate minerals (e.g., CaCO3, MgCO3, and FeCO3). Lastly, we discuss environmental concerns about the use of slag in agriculture and the future perspectives. Next-generation sequencing technologies for environmental DNA research. Besides silicate fertilizer, lime fertilizer has been widely used in acidic soil to neutralize the soil, which helps plants to protect themselves against soil pathogens. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2012.01.029, Luyckx, M., Hausman, J. F., Lutts, S., and Guerriero, G. (2017). A condition in which people have access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs for an active and healthy life. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. An overview of use of Linz-Donawitz (LD) steel slag in agriculture. Wang et al. Microbiol. Rev. Key Laboratory of Plant‐Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Center for Resources, Environment and Food Security, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193 PR China. The slag fertilizer amendment markedly affects the soil solution composition through acid–base, precipitation, and sorption reactions. The consumption of fertilizer in … Mat. (2017). Effect of industrial by-products containing electron acceptors on mitigating methane emission during rice cultivation. In Figure 1, we show the proposed mechanism of slag-microbe interactions in soil. “Possible uses of steelmaking slag in agriculture: an overview” in Material recycling – Trends and perspectives. Loss of crop diversity, decline of pollinators and increased vulnera… (2012). Iron oxidation affects nitrous oxide emissions via donating electrons to denitrification in paddy soils. Declining soil health causes poor crop yields, which in turn adds pressure on the soils as farmers struggle to produce enough food. The interplay of microbially mediated and abiotic reactions in the biogeochemical Fe cycle. Among fertilizers made from slag, the use of silicate fertilizer, particularly in rice cropping systems has been gaining awareness and demand (Meharg and Meharg, 2015). (2018). Front. Agric. 8:1702. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01702, Detmann, K. C., Araujo, W. L., Martins, S. C. V., Sanglard, L. M. V. P., Reis Josimar, V., Detmann, E., et al. 164, 73–80. The stabilization technique aims at reducing heavy metal and metalloid (e.g., As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn) bioavailability in contaminated soil. Fertil. 353, 236–243. 12, 797–808. Civil Eng. There is a growing … , 2007 ). Kuhn, M., Spiegel, H., Lopez, A. F., Rex, M., and Erdmann, R. (2006). New Phytol. 109. Improvement of soil quality and crop yield and effective management of water and nutrients. Soil nutrients. 27. producers and consumers . 132, 16–22. 8, 779–790. (2009a) reported that the silicate fertilizer amendment in no-tillage submerged paddies could improve the crop yield up to 47.2%. Microbiol., 18 June 2019 Bio-inoculation of bacteria possessing CA activity in slag fertilized agricultural systems could accelerate silicate weathering and enhance CO2 sequestration. Overview of attention for article published in Frontiers in Microbiology, June 2019. The effective utilization of slag fertilizer in agriculture to neutralize soil acidity, improve crop productivity, mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and stabilize heavy metals in contaminated soils turns it into a high value added product in sustainable agriculture. The main objective of the project was to enhance food security, improve soil fertility, and mitigate greenhouse gases from agriculture using integrated cropping-livestock systems in … A combination of slag fertilizer and microbial remediation strategies could be proposed for effective remediation of soil contaminants. About this Attention Score In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric. Follow: Facebook; Twitter; YouTube; LinkedIn ; Services and information. Received: 03 December 2018; Accepted: 27 May 2019; Published: 18 June 2019. Nippon steel and Sumitomo metal technical report no. 120, 8–17. Effects of ferric iron reduction and regeneration on nitrous oxide and methane emissions in a rice soil. (2016). The proposed mechanisms of slag-microbe interactions need to be experimentally verified and intensive research needs to be conducted to explore the microbial role in soil processes and agricultural productivity. The initiative promotes development and implementation of innovative farming and farm management practices based on system approaches that harness natural resources (through utilisation of crop and soil microbiomes) to sustainably increase farm productivity, food quality and environmental health. (2018a) showed that the application of slag fertilizer (8 Mg ha−1) with biochar (8 Mg ha−1) reduced CH4 emission up to 38.6% in early rice in China; however, Lee et al. Steel slags have been applied as calcium silicate fertilizer in fields where plant-available silicon is deficient in soil. Mineral CO2 sequestration by environmental biotechnological processes. Some studies suggest slag fertilizer decreases N2O emissions (Susilawati et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2015), while other studies suggest slag fertilizer increases N2O emissions (Huang et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2012). Effect of combine application of organic manure and inorganic fertilizer on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a tropical flooded soil planted to rice. 7:303. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.00303, Ning, D., Liang, Y., Liu, Z., Xiao, J., and Duan, A. Our Mancozeb formulations, with their multi-site, protective action on contact, are driving the fight against resistant fungi. Curr. In the latest edition of Talking Crop , Gideon Ashworth explains just how crucial good quality soil is for growing the crops we need to survive ahead of the UN’s World Soil Day on 5 December. Different response of silicate fertilizer having electron acceptors on methane emission in rice paddy soil under green manuring. Suvendu Das, Hyo Suk Gwon, Muhammad Israr Khan, Seung Tak Jeong, Pil Joo Kim, Steel slag amendment impacts on soil microbial communities and activities of rice (Oryza sativa L.), Scientific Reports, 10.1038/s41598-020-63783-1, 10, 1, (2020). Articles, University of Southampton, United Kingdom. Improvements in soil health, along with increase in availability of water and nutrients, increases soil's resilience against extreme climate events, imparts disease‐suppressive attributes, and advances sustainable development goals of the U.N. Moreover, the adequate Si supply through slag silicate fertilizer amendment causes competitive inhibition of As(III) uptake by crop plants (Meharg and Meharg, 2015). Click here to see the associated Mendeley record. The effective utilization of slag fertilizer in agriculture to neutralize soil acidity, improve crop productivity, mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and stabilize heavy metals in contaminated soils turns it into a high value added product in sustainable agriculture. Nat. Notably, steel-making slag and blast furnace slag have been extensively utilized as raw materials for fertilizer production, mostly in Japan, Korea, and China. The effects of silicon fertilizer on denitrification potential and associated genes abundance in paddy soil. Increases in N2O emissions with Si fertilization have been attributed to: (1) Si fertilization acting to lower soil C decomposition, which would alleviate immobilization of fertilizer N thereby making more mineral N available to nitrification and denitrification; and (2) Si fertilization improving soil pH and Eh, which are two factors important to N2O emissions (Huang et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2012). All authors contributed to the intellectual input and provided assistance to the manuscript preparation. Cropping With Slag to Address Soil, Environment, and Food Security. Environ. Microorganisms and climate change: terrestrial feedbacks and mitigation options. Noteworthy, the increased yield under slag fertilization is largely regulated by microbial decomposition of organic matter and nutrient mobilization. doi: 10.3390/agronomy8080135, Wang, W., Sardan, J., Lai, D., Wang, C., Zeng, C., Tong, C., et al. Summary of potential effects of slag on crop plants. The increase in grain yield, however, mostly depends on slag type, application rate, soil type, and agronomic management. Z., and Prezzi, M. (2011). Unlike CH4 emissions, the slag fertilizer effects on N2O emissions from rice cropping systems are contradictory. (2009b) showed that 4 mol of Fe3+ prevent the generation of 1 mol of CH4. It is well recognized that the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) participates in silicate weathering and carbonate formation and thus plays an important role in the biomemetic CO2 sequestration (Bose and Satyanarayana, 2017). Another demerit of slag fertilizer is that it contains small proportions of N and K, and P (in some slag fertilizer), which are essential nutrients for plant growth. (2018). This one has done well, scoring. Cropping With Slag to Address Soil, Environment, and Food Security Suvendu Das , Gil Won Kim , Hyun Young Hwang , P. Verma , P. Kim Environmental Science, Medicine Nat. There are only few reports concerning the effects of the slag fertilizer amendment on carbon sequestration in cropping systems. Several studies reveal that metal contamination in soil and metal uptake by plants are not adversely affected by short-term slag fertilizer amendment in cropping systems (Ali et al., 2008, Gwon et al., 2018). ed. The influence of slag fertilizer on the soil microbiome are diverse and the possible mechanisms of slag-microbes interactions can be as follows: (1) slag fertilizer supplies nutrients not only to the plant but also to soil microorganisms; (2) slag fertilizer modifies soil microbial habitats by improving soil properties (e.g., increasing soil pH) (Gwon et al., 2018), which is essential for nutrient mobilization and microbial growth; (3) silicate fertilizer increases plant photosynthesis (Detmann et al., 2012) and likely increases belowground carbon allocation through root exudates, which eventually triggers soil microbial proliferation and activities; and (4) steel slag enhances heavy metal immobilization in soil (Ning et al., 2016) and thus reduces their bioavailability and toxicity to microbes. Soil management. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.02.022, Wang, W., Lai, D., Abid, A., Neogi, S., Xu, X., and Wang, C. (2018). The main objective of the project was to enhance food security, improve soil fertility, and mitigate greenhouse gases from agriculture using integrated cropping-livestock systems in … However, risks to food security may be increased, because supply chains become more vulnerable and because of pollution. Soil Sci. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). 31, 139–146. The extent of CH4 emissions reduction depended on the slag fertilizer type, rate of application, soil type, and agronomic practices (Supplementary Table S1). UPL’s fungicides are fighting an aggressive battle for food, fodder as well as industrial crops against a broad spectrum of crop diseases. Chemosphere 74, 481–486. Front. The results of our previous works showed that essential Ca and Si elements were effectively supplied by the dicalcium silicate phase (C2S) while the glassy phase of the CaO–SiO2–FeO system served as an Fe source. Iron acts as an alternative electron acceptor in anoxic soil and its application decreases CH4 emissions by stimulating iron-reducing bacteria at the expense of methanogens (Gwon et al., 2018). Effects of steel slag and biochar incorporation on active soil organic carbon pools in a subtropical paddy field. Environ. Evaluation of silicate iron slag amendment on reducing methane emission from flood water rice farming. Intensification and concentrating food production in the most productive regions may appear the most efficient way to use the land. Suvendu Das, Gil Won Kim, Hyun Young Hwang, Pankaj Prakash Verma, Pil Joo Kim, Overview of attention for article published in Frontiers in Microbiology, June 2019, In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric, High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (81st percentile), High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (85th percentile), Cropping With Slag to Address Soil, Environment, and Food Security, The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for, Outputs of similar age from Frontiers in Microbiology, Altmetric has tracked 16,547,829 research outputs across all sources so far. The use of slag fertilizer instead of agricultural lime (limestone) to increase soil pH would eliminate the dissolution of lime as an important source of agricultural CO2 emissions. 8:1615. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01615, Branca, T. A., and Colla, V. (2012). doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2439, Song, A., Fan, F., Yin, C., Wen, S., Zhang, Y., Fan, X., et al. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2006.06.008, Liu, S., Zhang, L., Liu, Q., and Zou, J. country becomes i. ncreasingly important. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. Understanding the effects of slag fertilizer on soil microbial communities and functions is essential to address some critical agro-environmental issues, such as whether the slag fertilizer amendment would be useful to increase crop productivity, reduce GHG emissions, increase soil carbon sequestration, and stabilize heavy metals in contaminated soils. Since the mechanisms of slag-microbe interactions in soil are still not clear, this perspective focuses on the synthesis of several possible mechanisms based on published research. *Correspondence: Pil Joo Kim, pjkim@gnu.ac.kr, Front. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Front. (2008). (2015). Huang, B., Yu, K., and Gambrell, R. P. (2009). Agronomy 8, 1–17. With few exceptions, the required metals are divalent cations, including Ca2+, Mg2+, and Fe2+, and the most abundant cation source are silicate minerals. 21, 1794–1805. To meet a growing global demand for food and fodder, one can opt for increasing yields through intensification and/or for extending the land base used for agricultural cultivation. In addition, we discuss the problems and environmental concerns in using slag in agriculture. Intensive agricultural production often impacts the soil microbiome at a cost to productivity, sustainability and the environment. 57, 236–266. Altmetric Badge. In recent years, several studies have revealed that the slag-based fertilizer amendment in agriculture has great promise to improve crop productivity (White et al., 2017; Gwon et al., 2018), alleviate soil acidification (Ning et al., 2016), mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Wang et al., 2015; Gwon et al., 2018), and stabilize heavy metals in contaminated soils (Ning et al., 2016), which turns it into a high value added product for sustainable agriculture. Silicate fertilization in no-tillage rice farming for mitigation of methane emission and increasing rice productivity. Steelmaking slag for fertilizer usage. Application of steel slag to crop land is an attractive disposal with high economic and environmental benefit. Calcareous soil spiked with 5.0% (w/w) slag was amended with humic acid derived from leonardite from 0 to 5.0% (w/w). productivity and minimizing greenhouse gas emissions from paddy fields in this . Moreover, silicate fertilizer amendment can increase root biomass and O2 transport from the plant to root by enlarging arenchyma gas channels (Liang et al., 2007), which in turn suppresses CH4 production and stimulates CH4 oxidation. This article explores the role of soil in bridging the food security gap with special focus on North Africa. Environ. Slags contain traces of heavy metals, but the concentrations of heavy metals might not be enough to pose environmental risks (Gwon et al., 2018); however, it is believed that the long-term application of slag fertilizer in agriculture may accumulate heavy metals/metalloids in soil and may cause health risks. There are several examples, as follows: as can be stabilized by sorption on Fe oxyhydroxide and also by the formation of amorphous Fe(III) arsenates; Cr can be stabilized by the reduction from more mobile and toxic Cr(VI) to less toxic and stable Cr (III); Cu can be stabilized by precipitation of Cu carbonates and oxyhydroxides, iron exchange and formation of ternary cation-anion complexes on the surface of Fe and Al oxyhydroxides; and Pb and Zn can be immobilized by phosphorus amendments (Branca and Colla, 2012). SD wrote the manuscript. View all Soil and water. Unfortunately, few studies have focused specifically on understanding the changes in soil microbial community and function under slag fertilizer amendment in cropping systems. In recent years, extensive research has been conducted to obtain a mechanistic understanding of the contribution of microbial communities to ecosystem functioning under various agronomic management practices. 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